Medium. Flashe (a highly pigmented, water-based paint with powdery finish).

Square Wood Panels. Cradles unpainted, no orientation.

Limited Hues. Red, yellow, blue only to mix a full spectrum including black.

Elements/Principles of Design. Color, space, and shape to abstract content, reanimate data, and emphasize pattern, movement, and asymmetrical balance.


Historical Context. Reinhardt’s black squares, Mondrian’s limited palette, LeWitt’s grid. That is, begin with the end, rearrange primary elements, bridge minimalism and conceptual art.

Major Themes. [1] No one’s view of the world is absolute because we unconsciously translate what we know into something we can understand. [2] We seek pattern and where there are gaps and imperfect information, we devise pattern. [3] We love questions—but sometimes we love the answers more.


The Grid. Each painting is built on the same structure: a 64-square grid with opposing diagonal cuts. Known data is depicted by a combination of color and geometric shape. Unknown data is present in the negative space.

Variation on Venn’s Diagram. Each painting intersects three elements: a set of numbers, a physical object, and the meaning of the painting’s color. Like a Venn diagram, each painting reveals the overlap of its elements and suggests that connection may be found among any randomly selected elements. Painting titles are written in mathematical notation to cite the specific elements intersected, always in the same order: data, object, color.

Source/Meaning of Color. The physical object (second element) determines the color used in the painting. The meaning of that color (third element) reminds us that meaning does not lie in the thing itself but in the significance we give it.

Number Representation System. Each square is one number. Each square is divided on the diagonal with a dark side and a light side. The dark side tells you which of three buckets the number falls into: 1-2-3, 4-5-6, or 7-8-9. The light side tells you whether the number is first, second, or third in the bucket. For example, if the dark side has two segments (indicating the 4-5-6 bucket) and the light side has three (indicating the third number in the bucket), the number is 6. Zero is black. Segments painted in a nonrelated color add 100 to the square.

Book Cipher. The numbers in recent paintings also function as simple book ciphers, where each four-square block contains a pair of two-digit numbers (page number, word count) that represent one word in the cipher. This embedded fourth layer poses the question that engages and enchants us: Are the connections real or contrived? Do we believe that true meaning is always hidden? Perhaps, the artist has simply disarranged what has already been arranged.